Related post: Writing A Resume With No Experience
It is geared towards an administrative assistant job at an architecture and engineering firm in central New York that was listed on Indeed. Tommy Tutone’s experience consists of a summer job as a camp counselor for two summers and a human resources summer internship, both in Manhattan.
How To Write A Cover Letter Without Experience – Salutations
The salutations is the greeting of a letter. Since Tommy is applying on Indeed and doesn’t know the name of the person that this letter should be addressed to, the cover letter starts with “To Whom It May Concern,” rather than “Dear”.
The first line of the introduction is direct and to the point.
Tommy immediately states his purpose for the letter and where he found the job listing. This is to help the reader keep track of where they listed the job, especially if it’s been posted in multiple locations.
In addition, Tommy mention’s that he has an associate’s degree and is familiar with marketing, accounting, and MS Office, all words used in the job description. This allows him to directly address some of the responsibilities and qualifications that the the firm is looking for in their job candidate.
In the first paragraph after the introduction, Tommy refers to his most recent experience as a human resources intern at a corporation in Manhattan.
While his internship is not directly related to the administrative assistant job, there were some responsibilities that he had that are similar to the requirements of the new job.
For example, one of his responsibilities was to coordinate recruitment events. This enables him to perform two of the General Operational Support responsibilities listed in the job description: Coordinate and schedule all travel and Schedule and coordinate vendor lunch n’ learn seminars.
Another responsibility was to perform administrative and clerical duties. This enables him to perform two additional General Operational Support responsibilities: Maintain status of current professional registrations and Assist with other clerical and HR tasks as needed.
The last responsibility Tommy mentions he performed as a human resources intern is verifying and maintaining the employee time sheets. This qualifies him to provide accounting support at the new job by processing employee timesheets.
Tommy refers to his second most recent experience as a camp counselor at Summer Camp, also in Manhattan.
Some of his responsibilities as a camp counselor can also be used to show that he is qualified for the administrative assistant job. Specifically, his responsibility for the guidance and welfare of his campers and staff make him qualified to provide various administrative support duties for an office of 20+, one of the General Operational Support responsibilities.
He also communicated with various parties, such as parents, campers, staff member, and vendors. This shows that he has communications skills and can interact with the public in a manner that distinguishes the firm. Not only are these two qualifications in the job description, but they are also staple job requirements of any office job.
The third paragraph mentions the marketing coursework that Tommy has taken, which makes him familiar with marketing concepts and theories that non-marketing people may not know.
His education in marketing can compensate for his lack of direct experience in it.
The conclusion is short and sweet.
It provides the reader with Tommy’s phone number so that the reader knows where to find it to call him for an interview. In addition, the final line in the conclusion paragraph, “I look forward to meeting with you”, shows that Tommy is assertive enough to ask for the position.
The closing is the standard closing to any letter. Since it’s an electronic cover letter, there’s no need for an original signature.
That brings us to the end of this sample cover letter without experience. There are a few more things to consider when appying to this specific job.
Related post: 9 Tips For A Successful Job Search
First, the directions explicitly state to send a cover letter, resume, and references, so don’t forget to include three references. You should figure out who the references are and get their permission before submitting anything with their name and contact information. You don’t want them to be caught off guard by a reference request and have them decline the reference request, or provide a bad one.
Second, this employer requests that the subject line reads “Admin Asst Job #1811AA”, so make sure that you put Admin Asst Job #1811AA in the subject line before you hit the submit button. I’ve noticed that this employer has multiple jobs listed, so you want to make sure that it’s clear which job you’re applying for.
Third, normally I would mail a paper copy of my resume, cover letter, and references, in addition to my online application, so that the employer knows I’m serious about the job. But the employer explicitly states that the documents should be sent through Indeed, so I’d skip the paper mailing this time. You want to be persistent, but not annoying.
And last, be prepared to talk about anything you put in your resume or cover letter. Tommy mentioned that he has experience in managing his campers and staff, so he should be ready to discuss exactly what he had to do. And that’s what the interview is for.
Related post: Top 11 Tips For An Office Position Interview
Leave a comment if you need any help writing a cover letter without experience for an office position.
When I applied for my first real accounting job at a small business company, I had plenty of retail experience, little bookkeeping experience, and a degree in Accounting. I somehow had to write a bookkeeper resume with little experience. I was able to get the interview by writing a resume that emphasized aspects of my working experience and education that were aligned with the responsibilities and requirements of the job.
Owning stock and being a shareholder may seem like a difficult and complex task, but is actually fairly easy once you understand the lingo. Here are my 14 concepts every shareholder must know in order to buy stock and become a successful shareholder.
What Is A Shareholder?
A shareholder is someone, either an individual or an entity, who owns at least one share of stock. Just as a person can own stock, so can a company or institution.
Starting an LLC, or a limited liability company, can be daunting and scary. Below are some small business accounting and tax concepts that every small business owner should be familiar with, especially if they plan on growing and expanding their company.
Starting An LLC: Individual Taxes
Individuals file Form 1040 with the IRS. They are due on or around April 15th of every year. You can file for a six month extension, which extends the filing due date to October 15th. However, the IRS may penalize you by charging interest on the taxes that should have been paying but did not, usually because too little was withheld from your income. So Form 1040 may be filed by October 15th, but the taxes paid at that time are still penalized if you’ve been underpaying the entire time.
Above The Line Deductions (And Additions)
These are the items you deduct from (and add to) your gross income to reach your adjusted gross income (AGI). According to the new 2019 Form 1040, they include interest, dividends, retirement distributions (from IRAs, pensions, and annuities), and social security benefits. Other common above the line deductions (and additions) are taxable refunds, business income (or loss), unemployment income, educator expenses, IRA contributions, and student loan interest. These are on Schedule 1.
My hubby and I contribute to our IRAs every year to reduce our AGI, and thus our taxes, as a tax reduction strategy.
Related post: I Contribute To My IRA Once A Year
Related post: 4 Ways I Increased My Tax Refund
Adjusted Gross Income (AGI)
Your AGI is your gross income less your above the line deductions. So your AGI is the “line”. It’s a completely contrived number that is the basis for many other financial decisions, like what you can deduct on your taxes as itemized deductions, how much financial assistance, public or private, you can get, etc.
Below The Line Deductions
These are the items you deduct from your AGI to reach your taxable income. They include your standard deductions or your itemized deductions. You can take the standard deductions or itemized deductions.
Standard deductions are fixed amounts that you deduct from your AGI to calculate your taxable income. The amount depends on your filing status (single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, or head of household).
Itemized deductions are specific deductions that the IRS allows you to deduct from your AGI to calculate your taxable income. These include medical and dental expenses, state and local taxes, home mortgage interest, and charitable contributions, amongst others. They are on Schedule A, which is the form for itemized deductions.
Business income on Form 1040 is the net income from a sole proprietorship or single member LLC (I’ll explain later) from Schedule C, which is the form for a single owner business. Schedule C lays out the income and expenses of the business and calculates the net income that is transferred to the 1040.
There are 5 major types of companies: a C corporation, a partnership, a limited liability company (LLC) or limited liability partnership (LLP), an S corporation, and a sole proprietorship. Each one has it’s own set of tax rules. Some are similar to each other, some are not.
A C Corporation files Form 1120 with the IRS.
It files and pays taxes just like an individual files and pays taxes. The 1120 is due on April 15th for a calendar year end business or the 15th day of the fourth month for a fiscal year end business (a business whose last day of the year is not December 31st). So if a fiscal year ends on November 30th, the 1120 is due March 15th.
Not every corporation is the size of Target or Apple. Most corporations are not huge and international. But the big corporations make up most of the revenue earned by all corporations as a whole. And not all corporations are public and have millions of shareholders. Most are private whose shareholders are a small group of people, like the executives or employees.
A partnership is a formal agreement between two or more parties to operate and manage a business. The income and liabilities may be split evenly or unevenly amongst the partners. If there are silent partners involved in the business, that means they do not participate in the day to day operations of the business, and thus may receive a smaller share of the income and liabilities due to their lack of participation.
In addition, each partner has personal liability for the debts of the business as well as the actions for all the other partners. And if all the partners but one formally exit the partnership, the business is no longer a partnership and becomes a sole proprietorship until the remaining partner, now the sole owner, formally changes the business entity to an LLC (described below) or closes shop.
A partnership files Form 1065 by March 15th for a calendar year end business or the 15th day of the third month for a fiscal year end business.
So a partnership whose fiscal year end is June 30th must file their 1065 by September 15th.
Limited Liability Company (LLC) and Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
A limited liability company is similar to a partnership, but it offers the owners protection from liability that a partnership does not. Generally speaking, each owner is liable for the debts of the business to the extent of their personal contribution. And the owners are actually called members, not owners.
There are ways to pierce the veil of liability protection of each member and increase their personal liability past their own personal contributions. They include combining the separation between personal and business, personally guaranteeing a loan, and engaging in fraud or illegal activities, amongst others.
Most LLCs file Form 1065, just like a partnership. However, LLCs with just one member don’t file a 1065 since there is only one member. Those are called single member LLCs. Instead, they file a Schedule C on their 1040 when they file their individual taxes. In that case, single member LLCs must file taxes by April 15th, or October 15th if an extension is filed.
A limited liability partnership is similar to an LLC, except that LLPs are for professional businesses, like accountants, engineers, doctors, etc.
An S corporation is a hybrid of a C corporation and a partnership. They have the benefit of liability protection that a C corporation has but file taxes like a partnership or an LLC. An S corp uses Form 1120S to file with the IRS, which is due by March 15th for a calendar year end business or the 15th day of the third month for a fiscal year end business.
For example, if the fiscal year ends on November 30th for an S corporation, the 1120S is due on February 15th.
Pass Through Entities and K-1s
A pass through entity is a business whose income passes to the owners of the business. It’s also known as a flow through entity, which means the same thing, the income flows to the owners of the business. In plain English, that means the income of the business is reported on the individual tax returns (1040) of the business owners. Income being net income, gross revenue less expenses of the business, like overhead (rent, utilities, telephone, etc), office expenses, advertising, salaries and wages, etc.
When you hear that partnerships, LLCs, LLPs, and S corps are pass through entities, that means those entities don’t pay taxes on their income because the income passes (or flows) through the business to the owners and onto their individual tax returns, the 1040. That income is taxed at the individual tax rate and not a business tax rate.
This is done using a K-1.
When a pass through entity files its tax return (either a 1065 for a partnership, LLC, or LLP, or a 1120s for an S corp), it also includes a K-1 for each owner, which shows each owner’s portion of income (or loss) from the business. That K-1 is needed for each owner to file their own individual taxes, Form 1040.
The purpose of a K-1 is similar to that of a W2. While they look wildly different from each other, both show the income that an individual received from each source, the W2 from an employer, the K-1 from a business that the individual owns. And yes, a person can have multiple W2s and multiple K-1s. That means that the person not only works multiple jobs, but also owns multiple businesses. That is one busy person.
Estimated taxes are quarterly tax payments made to prepay taxes on income that is not subject to withholding, like a paycheck. They are due January 15th (for the previous quarter), April 15th, June 15th, and September 15th. Both corporations and individuals may be subject to estimated tax payments.
Generally speaking, estimated taxes are for those who regularly do not have enough withholdings taken out of their wages during the year. Owners of pass through entities are usually subjected to estimated taxes because the income from the pass through entities are added to their own individual gross wages, if any, to calculate taxable income but have not had taxes withheld from that income.
Corporations must pay estimated taxes if they expect to owe $500 or more when it files its corporate tax return.
Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation
Section 179 and bonus depreciation is basically expedited depreciation that a business can expense when calculating taxable income, thus increasing expenses and decreasing taxable income. In simple terms, bonus depreciation means additional depreciation, hence the word bonus. Section 179 allows a business to expense the entire purchase rather than just depreciation. So the business can deduct the full $50,000 for the pickup truck it just bought rather than just $10,000 (assuming a 5 year life at straight depreciation, $50,000 / 5 years).
For example, if gross income is $100,000 and expenses, including depreciation, is $50,000, then taxable income is $50,000. If bonus depreciation is taken, increasing total expenses (including total depreciation) to $60,000, then total taxable income is now $40,000, thus lowering corporate taxes. If section 179 is taken, where the business can expense the entire purchase of the vehicle rather than just the depreciation amount, thus increasing total expenses with total depreciation to $75,000, taxable income is just $25,000.
Taking section 179 is a way to use new fixed assets purchases, like vehicles and equipment, to lower corporate taxes for the current year. But once section 179 is taken on those fixed assets, those fixed assets cannot be depreciated in future years since they were already fully expensed in the year of the purchase.
When I was studying journal entries in college, I remember thinking “I don’t understand them, but I’ll never need them in the real world, so who cares?” the same way I thought “I’ll never need algebra” in middle school. Well, I use both of them all the time.
Journal entries are the backbone of any accounting transaction.
In simple terms, when you bill a customer, you’re actually debiting accounts receivable and crediting sales. When the customer pays their bill, you’re actually crediting accounts receivable and debiting cash. When using an accounting software, billing the customer by creating and saving an invoice to send to a customer is debiting accounts receivable and crediting sales. You’re just not physically writing a journal entry, with the “T” account and all.
There are times when you will have to physically enter a journal entry. Not all things are perfect, and that goes the same with recording accounting transactions in whichever accounting software is used. That’s when you may enter a journal entry to fix the imperfection.
An adjusting entry is a journal entry used to adjust the current accounting books so that they are accurate. If an accounting transaction is recorded inaccurately, an adjusting entry is used to fix it. They are typically used at year-end to prepare financial statements and tax returns accurately.
Closing entries are journal entries entered at the end of an accounting period, like a month, quarter, or year, to zero out temporary holding accounts and transfer balances to the permanent accounts. They mark the end of one period and the start of the next.
While it’s impossible to learn everything you need to know about starting a small business, the few concepts that I’ve listed here are a step in the right direction. Leave a comment with any questions or comments that you may have about starting or running a small business and I will try to answer them as quickly as I can.
My first accountant job was at a small business construction company in upstate New York.
Related post: 20 Accounting Jobs You Can Get With An Accounting Degree
Related post: 10 Things You Must Do When Starting Your First Job
Related post: 9 Tips For A Successful Job Search
Related post: Writing A Resume With No Experience
I encountered many things on the job that I didn’t learn in college. College was mostly theory, which helped, but the job was hands-on and not theory. Here are the 10 must knows for every small business bookkeeper (and accountant) that I learned on the job.
Many accounting majors are under the assumption that the only accounting jobs available are at a Big 4. If your goal is to work all the time and have the life sucked out of you, then yes. But for those whose ambitions do not include a Big 4, there are many other accounting jobs on the market. Here are 20 accounting jobs you can get with an accounting degree.
How do credit cards work?
Paying with a credit card is basically using borrowed money to pay for things. You are in debt to the credit card company because you are promising to pay the credit card company back. Notice how I say BORROWED, and not FREE. Those that dig themselves into enormous credit card debt usually buy on the notion that the money is free without fully understanding that they will have to pay it back at some point.